Lockdown and its history
Corona virus forced the entire world to be lockdown, to protect and prevent the spread of COVID-19. The heads of each country announced for lockdown according to the circumstances, this lockdown proved to be beneficial for some and harmful for some. The whole world became a form of a prison, that resulted the collapse of the global economy. On the one hand lockdown has been imposed to save human life, on the other hand, people were left to its own to manage in this lockdown. In our dear homeland of India, the lockdown has been done on many phases.
Lockdown is used to control something, be it a disaster, calamity, flood, storm, fire, terrorism, murder, natural disaster, epidemic, distress, disease, germs, etc. but the danger not to be outdone. If lockdown not be imposed then it became uncontrolled to manage and the human life become endangered. That would not be limited to only a group or area but it would also spread to entire state or nation.
The word lockdown means locking in a building, meaning that no one is allowed to enter or leave the building. In fact, locking has been used for prisoners or the place where the criminal is imprisoned. In which a dangerous prisoner can be locked so that he couldn’t escape.
The word Lockdown is a combination of the English words Lock and Down. That means to stop quickly, i.e. to control as early as possible with a speed at which something is moving. Covid-19 is also an epidemic. Its scope is expanding rapidly beyond Wuhan, China to other countries, cities, towns, and villages around the world. The only immediate solution is lockdown, along with a number of precautions. This is the only way to protect themselves and others from this Corona virus.
Types of locking:
There are basically four types of Lockdown.
- Political Lockdown
- Precautionary / Tactical Lockdown
- Infectious Lockdown
- The global epidemic Lockdown
1) Political Lockdown:
When a government locks a city, province or country in order to achieve its political goals, to maintain its supremacy, to enforce a law by force, to issue an order, to impose its decision. And deprived of human freedom, if people treated badly than animals, that is called a Political Lockdown.
2) Precautionary / Tactical Lockdown:
Preventive measures to prevent any unfortunate accident in order to prevent any major disturbance in the society or area, or to prevent any unfortunate incident which may endanger human life. To prevent such kind of situation, a lockdown that is put in place in emergency is called a Precautionary lockdown.
3) Infectious Lockdown:
When a disease is transmitted from one person to another, or from one animal to another, it is called an infectious disease, which is caused by contact with each other, thus spreading the disease rapidly. To prevent it, the infected person is told to stay away from others. This is also called contagious disease. A lockdown has been imposed to control it so that the germs are eliminated in its place and no one come close to each other by keeping the distance.
A contagious disease that has affected the entire world, such as Covid-19 is a global epidemic, it has spread to most parts of the world. The most of the countries are suffering from this disease from Corona virus. WHO (World Health Organization) has been declared Covid-19 a global pandemic, nearly two-thirds of the world’s population locked up since the last week of April 2020. Most of the population in the United States and Europe has been locked down. Only essential services were allowed. The people only allowed to go out of the house to meet important needs, cannot go out without any important need, stay at home and stay safe, keep physical distance, protect yourself and others.
The current form of lockdowns that has taken over the whole world, there is no precedent for it on such a large scale. But the short-term lockdown examples are already existing. In the 1970s, the detainee’s imprisonment and the mentally ill peoples were held in solitary confinement, in which they were kept in a special building and were not allowed to go out.
During the period of Holy Prophet Solomon (PBUH), the ants were lock down in their anthills for a certain time period.
In India, Lockdown has been imposed for political purposes in Kashmir province in August 2019.
U.S. airspace was closed for three days after the 2011 attack on World Trade Center.
And transportation was suspended due to the terrorist attack in Boston on April 19, 2013.
The goal of lockdown at any place is to save and protect human life, lockdown has been of different forms, different reasons and different aspects in human history.
Lockdown were imposed due to epidemic or diseases as well. In 1665 there was a great plague in United and the plague in Marseille, France in 1720 took the form of an epidemic that killed countless people. The people were forced quarantine for treatment. The lockdown in Southerland was carried out in December 2005 to prevent ethnic riots.
Reasons for Lockdown:
Lockdowns are needed to prevent epidemics such as COVID-19. This is a spreadable disease. The human corona was first discovered in 1960. It is a rapidly spreading bacterium. In a short span of time, this virus infects the entire city and country. It is transmitted from one person to another. If a corona infected person sneezes or coughs, the effects of the corona virus can be transmitted to any person near to them while they breathing and there is a strong possibility of transmission. That is why the person who comes in contact with the infected person is also asked to wear a mask, so that the risk of transmission of the virus is minimized. In addition, if an infected person touches anything, the virus in their body sticks to it and if a healthy person touches it, the virus is transmitted to them, and if they If you touch your nose, eyes or mouth with your infected hands, the virus can enter your body through these routes. So, it is advisable to wash your hands frequently because if a person intentionally or unintentionally touched anything suspicious then by hand washing virus will be eliminated and the chances of it being transmitted to the body will be almost eliminated. Because it is seen that a person’s hands often go to his nose and eyes, by washing his hands, the danger is negligible even if this happens.
The beginning of Lockdown in India and around the world:
The lockdown began in the Chinese city of Wuhan. Wuhan was Corona’s first center but it was not limited to Wuhan, China and spread across the world. One by one it spread to each country. In view of this, these countries also had to go for lockdown in order of Covid-19 spread. So that there is some break or slowdown the growing continuity of Corona virus.
Most countries announced the lockdown in March 2020. Some notable lockdown countries are:
- India’s government announced on 25th March 2020 for 21 days Lockdown for entire regions and states.
- The United States has not announced a formal Stay Home. Also issued a number of instructions that are similar to the Lockdown.
- Iran locked down on March 14 which was lifted on April 21 with some instructions.
- Germany has been locked up since March 23, 2020.
- Iraq from March 22 to April 11, 2020.
- Nepal from March 24 to June 14, 2020.
- New Zealand closed the country from March 26 to May 14, 2020.
- Sri Lanka also locked down nationally from March 18 to May 26, 2020.
- UAE from March 26 to April 17, 2020.
- Saudi Arabia locked different cities on different dates, such as Mecca, Medina and Riyadh on March 26. In Jeddah from March 29 and in Taif from March 9, 2020.
- Lockdown in Pakistan from March 24 to May 9, 2020.
- England locked down nationally from March 23, 2020.
- Turkey locks down only 30 cities.
- Russia also locked in on different dates.
- France locked down from March 17 to May 11, 2020.
In India, where Lockdown has been started from 25th March 2020 and periodically extended for more lockdowns. The first case of Covid-19 in India came from Kerala state on January 30, 2020 and that person also returned from China. Once corona patients number reached to 500, then Indian government feared that if it continued to grow at the same rate the entire country would be affected. In view of this, the Prime Minister of India said on March 19 that there would be a public curfew on Sunday, March 22. The whole country remained closed from 7:00 am to 9:00 pm for 14 hours, and in the same public address he said that at 5:00 pm on public curfew day, come to the windows, doors, or balconies of your homes and clap or ring bells to thank doctors and corona warriors. So that this will help to stop coronavirus from spreading.
The Prime Minister delivered his second public address at 8 pm on March 24, thanking the people for making the public curfew a success, as well as preparing to live a new life in a new era and that new era is starting tonight. It is going to start from 12 o’clock, i.e. the country needs a lockdown to defeat an epidemic like Corona, in view of which the lockdown is being carried out in the country for 21 days after 4 hours.
Phase I: From March 24, all services will be suspended except for the essential services in view of the lockdown (such as grocery store / medical store, petrol pump, bank, ATM, etc.). The strict action will be taken against those who do not comply the rule. On March 26, the Finance Minister announced Rs 170,000 crore package, which will be used on the people affected by the lockdown. The Rail, Bus, and Plane services were suspended, that leads millions stranded and stuck.
Phase II: April 15 to May 3, announced by the Prime Minister on the last day of the first phase of the lockdown. The lockdown was thus extended and on April 16 the locking area was divided into three zones, the Red Zone, where the number of corona patients is significant, formerly known as hot spots. The area where some people were affected was named the Orange Zone and the area that was not affected was placed in the Green Zone and it was said that every area would be monitored. The lockdown will continue in the area where the number of victims will be found, but on the contrary, if the number of victims is not increased, then there will be a waiver from April 20. From April 20, the business was also exempted and the means of transportation were also exempted with some instructions. From April 25, small shops were also allowed to open but with the conditions and instructions that the number of staff must be halved, social and physical distance must be taken care of, masks must be worn, sanitization must be done, distance must be taken care of. There will be also permissible to come and go in any state of the country but only by following government instructions.
Phase III: The third phase was from May 4 to May 17. In the third phase, the lockdown was extended for another two weeks, with some waivers, dividing the country’s districts into three zones, allowing buses to operate in the green zone but with half the capacity of the buses.
Phase IV: Remained from May 18 to May 31. In this phase, the state governments were instructed to prepare a new blueprint, to provide exemptions with instructions, and to divide the red zone into two parts. The name of the containment zone and the other name should be buffer zone and no exemption should be given in the containment zone.
Phase V: This phase was named Unlock 1.0. This phase lasted from June 1 to June 30. According to government guidelines, except for the sub-zone of the red zone, i.e. the containment zone, all other zones were allowed to open but with caution. From June 8, 2020, places of worship, shopping malls, bazaars, hotels, restaurants, etc. were allowed to open but were advised to follow the directive and not to be crowded and it was said that strict action would be taken against those who were negligent. The central government has authorized the state governments to take a decision considering the situation of their state, but there would be no restriction on moving from one state to another, night curfew would continue, meaning from 9 pm to 5 am.
Phase VI: This is called Unlock 2.0, From July 1 to July 31, enabling rail (partial), private and public services, plane (domestic), etc. The educational institutions, metro services, cinema halls, etc. will remain closed till July 31. The curfew will be continued from 10 pm to 5 am, there will be no work in the containment zone except for the supply of essential items.
Hassan Ahmad is a research scholar. He is pursuing his PhD as well associated with an IT company in India. He has an excellent command on language and having good thoughts on social causes.